Science of the Total Environment

Science of the Total Environment

Author: Md. Arifur Rahman, Amzad Hossain, Ananda Tiwari, Atkeeya Tasneem, Firoz Ahmed, Foysal Hossen, Francesco Sera, Iqbal Kabir Jahid, Kuldeep Dhama, Md Didar-Ul-Alam, Md. Aminul Islam, Md. Atiqul Haque, Md. Jakariya, Md. Tahmidul Islam, Mohammad Nayeem Hasan, Mohammad Salim Hossain, Newaz Mohammed Bahadur, Prosun Bhattacharya, Ruhul Amin, Sanjoy Kumar Mukharjee, Tanvir Ahmed

Md. Arifur Rahman

Amzad Hossain

Ananda Tiwari

Atkeeya Tasneem

Firoz Ahmed

Foysal Hossen

Francesco Sera

Iqbal Kabir Jahid

Kuldeep Dhama

Md Didar-Ul-Alam

Md. Aminul Islam

Md. Atiqul Haque

Md. Jakariya

Md. Tahmidul Islam

Mohammad Nayeem Hasan

Mohammad Salim Hossain

Newaz Mohammed Bahadur

Prosun Bhattacharya

Ruhul Amin

Sanjoy Kumar Mukharjee

Tanvir Ahmed

Categories: Research Paper

Language: English

Publiction Year: 2023


Wastewater based epidemiology (WBE) is an important tool to fight against COVID-19 as it provides insights into the health status of the targeted population from a small single house to a large municipality in a cost-effective, rapid, and non-invasive way. The implementation of wastewater based surveillance (WBS) could reduce the burden on the public health system, management of pandemics, help to make informed decisions, and protect public health. In this study, a house with COVID-19 patients was targeted for monitoring the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 genetic markers in waste water samples (WS) with clinical specimens (CS) for a period of 30 days. RT-qPCR technique was employed to target non-structural (ORF1ab) and structural-nucleocapsid (N) protein genes of SARS-CoV-2, according to a validated experimental protocol. Physiological, environmental, and biological parameters were also measured following the American Public Health Association (APHA) standard protocols. SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding in wastewater peaked when the highest number of COVID-19 cases were clinically diagnosed. Throughout the study period, 7450 to 23,000 gene copies/1000 mL were detected, where we identified 47 % (57/120) positive samples from WS and 35% (128/360) from CS. When the COVID-19 patient number was the lowest (2), the highest CT value (39.4; i.e., lowest copy number) was identified from WS. On the other hand, when the COVID-19 patients were the highest (6), the lowest CT value (25.2 i.e., highest copy numbers) was obtained from WS. An advance signal of increased SARS-CoV-2 viral load from the COVID-19 patient was found in WS earlier than in the CS. Using customized primer sets in a traditional PCR approach, we confirmed that all SARS-CoV-2 variants identified in both CS and WS were Delta variants (B.1.617.2). To our knowledge, this is the first follow-up study to determine a temporal relationship between COVID-19 patients and their discharge of SARS-CoV-2 RNA genetic markers in wastewater from a single house including all family members for clinical sampling from a developing country (Bangladesh), where a proper sewage system is lacking. The salient findings of the study indicate that monitoring the genetic markers of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in wastewater could identify COVID-19 cases, which reduces the burden on the public health system during COVID-19 pandemics.


Water Safety


Total Pages: 10

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